A variety of structures are involved in the process of breathing, talking, chewing, and swallowing, these being: the facial muscles, the jaw joints and its components (ligaments, disc), and of course, the teeth.
Main muscles involved in the function of chewing:
The main muscles that are responsible for the position of the lower jaw relative to the entire human skull are:
- Temporalis muscle
Raises the lower jaw, and takes part in moving the jaw back/sideways and in chewing food.
The strongest muscle:
- The masticatory muscle
Joins the temporalis muscle when the lower jaw is raised.
In extension, there are a number of other vital muscles without which we would not be able to talk or chew:
- Lateral pterygoid muscle
- Medial pterygoid muscle
It is important to understand that the lateral pterygoid muscle (the upper part) pulls the disc (cushioning pad), that is found in the jaw joint (TMJ).
The spasm of this muscle causes the disc to move forward, which means that the jaw joint malfunctions.
- The digastric muscle
Lowers the lower jaw and raises the hyoid bone.
The dental system is a part of our whole body, which is why even minor (at the micron scale) faulty contacts between the teeth can result in the movement of the lower jaw to the wrong trajectory which would cause excessive spasm in the muscles of the face and neck area.
Pain, crunch and other disorders of the jaw joint often occur due to the joint trying to adapt to unhealthy muscle tone. And impaired facial muscle tone, in turn, leads to malocclusion and issues in posture.
Vice versa, posture disorders can lead to changes in facial muscle tone and occlusion.
Note:In the process of diagnosing the causes of occlusal disorders, it is important to assess the posture, the condition of the spine, especially the cervical region (the condition of which directly affects the position of the jaw and the tone of the facial muscles). Therefore, if necessary, we will provide you with a referral for a free consultation to our orthopedic clinic of partners.
When it comes to analyzing the condition of facial muscles
and collar area - there is electromyography.
Eight-channel electromyograph - registers electromyograms of eight rhinomanite muscle groups simultaneously. The perception of the electrical signal from the muscles is created by bipolar surface sensors glued to the surface of the skin.
A computer program demonstratively transmits images of oscillations of muscle potential to the monitor screen.
If we observe increased activity of the temporal muscles - this is due to the fact that they have to work under hypertension in order to support the jaw in pathological "habitual" occlusion (bite). This situation is typical if the bite height is reduced, for example, when the teeth are worn down.
In this way, the electron potential of different masticatory muscles is analyzed, and this allows doctors, in combination with other studies, to establish a proper diagnosis.
Musculoskeletal and occlusive symptoms of impaired muscle tone:
- pathological abrasion of teeth
- bruxism (gnashing of teeth at night)
- mismatch of the central line of the teeth of the upper and lower jaw
- wedge-shaped defects in the cervical region of the teeth
- broken bumps on the teeth
- broken cutting edges of the front teeth
- chewing facets on the teeth
- mobility of teeth
- enamel cracks
- open bite
- exposure of tooth roots
- congestion and abrasion of the anterior group of teeth of the mandible
Electromyography is an objective method for the assessment of treatment outcomes.
Electromyography after treatment should demonstrate a stable, balanced and comfortable established bite.
Chewing muscles at rest should have:
- minimum electrical activity
- set optimal length (which is genetically encoded)
- balance with other muscles of the body
The physiological function of the masticatory muscles is to close the teeth of the upper and lower jaws from a state of physiological rest. In optimal physiological occlusion (bite) with minimal muscle activity. The muscles that position the lower jaw in the cranial space are healthy if they do not need to adapt to an improper occlusion (closing of the teeth)
Electromyography is used:
- to diagnose occlusal disorders
- at all stages of treatment on Orthotics
- to check the stability of the bite during and after orthodontic treatment
- after installation of orthopedic structures (veneers, crowns, prostheses, implants)
- in the complex treatment of periodontitis
Smile more often so that stress loses its effect on the health of your muscles and teeth.
With love, 32 Pearls.